[Blueboard] MS Atmospheric Science Thesis Defense

Quirino M. Sugon, Jr. qsugon at ateneo.edu
Sat Feb 23 20:19:27 PHT 2013


The Department of Physics cordially invites you to the thesis defense  
of MS Atmospheric Science students on Wednesday, 27 February 2013,  
1:00-5:00 pm.  Below are their thesis titles and abstracts:


1.  SATELLITE RAINFALL VALIDATION AND ASSIMILATION INTO WEATHER FORECAST MODEL
by Carlo Jamandre

ABSTRACT
Rainfall is an integral part of the Philippines? climate. Many of its  
sectors rely heavily on adequate amounts of precipitation to function.  
However, recent events have also highlighted how excessive rainfall  
also affects severely the Philippines. Extreme weather events such as  
Ondoy and the more recent enhanced monsoon effect, Habagat, have shown  
how vulnerable the Philippines is to disproportionate amounts of rain.  
It thus becomes essential to either create or further develop current  
models to ensure that they have the capacity to predict these  
occurrences. For this reason, an assimilation technique is studied and  
used in this investigation to adjust the weather research and  
forecasting (WRF) model based on satellite-derived rainfall rates in  
order to improve the prediction of precipitation for these  
catastrophes. To implement this, two research objectives were  
formulated. The first is that satellite rainfall rates were validated  
for TRMM and CMORPH in order to determine the conditions where there  
are improvements in the accuracy of satellite data. Results showed  
that accuracy increases for higher rainfall amounts, making TRMM and  
CMORPH viable for these excessive rainfall events. Following this, the  
second objective is the improvement of precipitation forecasts through  
the adjustment of the mixing ratio based on the difference between  
satellite observations and initial forecasts. Findings show that  
immediately after forecasting, rainfall was captured more accurately  
and lower errors were noted post-assimilation.

2. THE EFFECTS OF URBAN EXPANSION IN METRO MANILA ON THE SOUTHWEST  
MONSOON RAINFALL
by Julie Mae Dado

ABSTRACT
Climate models often do not take into account land use change effects  
in modeling climatic changes. However, modifications in land cover  
such as urbanization, affect the partitioning of the water and energy  
balance, which in turn influences temperature and rainfall magnitude  
and pattern. In this study, we investigate the dynamics behind the  
impacts of major urban expansion in Metro Manila on the peak of the  
Southwest monsoon (SWM) rainfall season during July to September  
(JAS). We use a climate model to perform an ensemble simulation of  
experiments consisting of three-month runs for ten different years  
using two land cover scenarios representative of the old urban cover  
in 1972 and the 2001 expanded urban Metro Manila area. Results show  
that the Southwest Monsoon rainfall may be enhanced by up to 20% due  
to extensive urban expansion. The mechanism behind this increase in  
the rainfall is potentially because of the increased convective  
activity resulting from the combined effects of increase in  
temperature and vertical winds, which enhances the uplifting of moist  
winds brought about by the SWM.  This consequently enhances convection  
and rainfall formation. Observation data analysis shows that JAS SWM  
rainfall since the 1960s has increased by about 29%.  Comparison of  
model results with observation data from three Metro Manila stations  
indicate that without urban expansion, rainfall increases only by  
about 15%.  With expanded urban impacts included, the modeled increase  
in rainfall is about 26%, which is much closer to the observed value.   
This strongly indicates the importance of the climatic impacts of  
urban expansion on the SWM rainfall. This study therefore illustrates  
the significance of incorporating land use changes together with CO2  
changes in climatic change modeling especially at the scale of local  
impacts.

3. EVALUATION OF AN ULTRAFINE TITANIUM DIOXIDE-BASED PAINT FOR  
REMOVING NITROGEN OXIDES IN AN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT
by Lucille Joanna Borlaza

ABSTRACT
Air pollution occurs both indoors and outdoors, air pollutant levels  
sometimes exceed World Health Organization air quality guideline  
values by a factor of three or more in urban areas. The development of  
innovative materials that can be easily applied on facades with  
de-polluting properties could be a significant step towards the  
improvement of air quality. The Fujishima and Honda discovery of  
photo-catalysis in the early 1970?s has attracted extensive attention  
due to its number of potential applications, one of which is  
degradation of pollutants. It is the purpose of this study to evaluate  
the NOx reduction efficiency of a styrene acrylic water-based paint  
with 7.5% ultrafine titanium dioxide (UF TiO2) photo-catalytic  
ingredient by comparing its effectiveness in an indoor and outdoor  
environment. NO2 mass concentrations as well as meteorological  
conditions were measured before, during and after the application of  
UF TiO2 paint in an indoor and outdoor environment. Melinex film  
strips coated with UF TiO2 paint were also exposed for 10 months and  
subjected to ion chromatography analysis. Results indicate an average  
of 12% reduction of NO2 mass concentration in the outdoor environment,  
while 49% increase in the indoor environment. A step-wise linear  
regression model showed significant dependence of NO2 mass  
concentration with wind speed. Ion chromatography analysis on the  
paint strips yielded a 0.29-2.24g/m2 NOx removal in the outdoor  
environment for 10 months. On the other hand, a 0.04g/m2 NOx removal  
is measured in the indoor environment. According to the series of  
evaluation, a styrene acrylic water-based paint with 7.5% UF TiO2  
photo-catalytic ingredient is more effective in an outdoor environment  
where there is sufficient light, and moisture. Wind dispersion is also  
a key in keeping the levels of air pollution diluted. It is  
recommended that the UF TiO2-based paint be used in areas where the  
presence of the paint?s requirements is abundant and where minimal  
pollution build-up could occur.


-- 
QUIRINO M. SUGON, JR.

Physics Department, Loyola School of Science and Engineering,
Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City
Philippines 1108

P.O. Box 154, Manila 0917, Philippines

Tel. No. (632)426-1043 or (632)426-6001 local 5692
Fax. No. (632)426-1043
E-mail: qsugon at ateneo.edu





More information about the Blueboard mailing list